# Income Approach Formula

Finance Formulas / August 5, 2018 / Kenley Hopper

When you make a down payment on a purchase and use a loan to pay for the remainder, you instantly reduce the amount of interest you pay over the lifetime of the loan. For example, if you borrow \$100,000 on a loan with a 5% interest rate, you owe \$5,000 in interest in the first year of the loan alone. However, if you have a \$20,000 down payment, you only need to borrow \$80,000. As a result, during the first year, your interest is only \$4,000, saving you \$1,000 in the first year alone. Thus, it pays to have a sizable down payment on your mortgage as it will save you thousands of dollars in interest over the lifetime of the loan.

### Profitability Formula

#### Total Debt Formula

##### Double Declining Formula
###### Market Price Formula

The Debt Service Coverage Ratio, usually abbreviated as DSCR or just DCR, is an important concept in real estate finance and commercial lending. It’s critical when underwriting commercial real estate and business loans, as well as tenant financials, and is a key part of determining the maximum loan amount. In this article we’ll take a deep dive into the debt service coverage ratio and walk through several examples along the way.

In marketing, customer lifetime value (CLV or often CLTV), lifetime customer value (LCV), or life-time value (LTV) is a prediction of the net profit attributed to the entire future relationship with a customer. The prediction model can have varying levels of sophistication and accuracy, ranging from a crude heuristic to the use of complex predictive analytics techniques.

Consider the following example to illustrate the concept. Assume hypothetical company BigBox has operating income or earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) of \$100 million in Year 1, with interest expense of \$10 million, and has 100 million shares outstanding. (For the sake of clarity, let’s ignore the effect of taxes for the moment.)

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