# Capital Ratio Formula

Finance Formulas / June 17, 2018 / Aniyah Booth

There are many variations when it comes to what you can use for your cash flows and discount rate in a DCF analysis. For example, free cash flows can be calculated as operating profit + depreciation + amortization of goodwill - capital expenditures - cash taxes - change in working capital. Although the calculations are complex, the purpose of DCF analysis is simply to estimate the money you'd receive from an investment and to adjust for the time value of money.

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In contrast, implicit costs are the opportunity costs of factors of production that a producer already owns. The implicit cost is what the firm must give up in order to use its resources; in other words, an implicit cost is any cost that results from using an asset instead of renting, selling, or lending it. For example, a paper production firm may own a grove of trees. The implicit cost of that natural resource is the potential market price the firm could receive if it sold it as lumber instead of using it for paper production.

Bond valuation is a technique for determining the theoretical fair value of a particular bond. Bond valuation includes calculating the present value of the bond's future interest payments, also known as its cash flow, and the bond's value upon maturity, also known as its face value or par value. Because a bond's par value and interest payments are fixed, an investor uses bond valuation to determine what rate of return is required for a bond investment to be worthwhile.

Every business has assets, or things that the company owns and uses in its business in order to make money. These assets can include not just tangible items like cash, supplies, buildings, and equipment, but also intangible assets like trademarks and copyrights. The asset turnover ratio is a number that shows how much revenue is being earned for every dollar the company has spent on assets. It represents how well a company uses its assets to make money.

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