# Company Valuation Formula

Finance Formulas / May 17, 2018 / Chanel Cleveland

When the cross elasticity of demand for product A relative to a change in the price of product B is positive, it means that in response to an increase in the price of product B, the quantity demanded of product A has increased. An increase in the price of product B means that more people will consume A instead of B, and this will increase the quantity demanded of product A.

### Retail Markup Formula

#### Expected Return Formula

##### Gdp Income Approach Formula
###### Income Approach Formula

Annual percentage rate (APR) is the annualized interest rate on a loan or investment which doesnâ€™t account for the effect of compounding. It is the annualized form of the periodic rate which when applied to a loan or investment balance gives the interest expense or income for the period. In most cases it is the interest rate quoted by banks and other financial intermediaries on various products i.e. loans, mortgages, credit cards, deposits, etc. It is also called the nominal annual interest rate or simple interest rate.

The debt to total assets ratio is calculated by dividing a corporation's total liabilities by its total assets. Let's assume that a corporation has \$100 million in assets, \$40 million in liabilities, and \$60 million in stockholders' equity. Its debt to total assets ratio will be 0.4 (\$40 million of liabilities divided by \$100 million of assets), or 0.4 to 1. In this example, the debt to total assets ratio tells you that 40% of the corporation's assets are financed by the creditors or debt (and therefore 60% is financed by the owners). A higher percentage indicates more leverage and more risk.

An individual starts a business and incurs startup costs of \$50,000. During the first year of operation, the business earns a profit of \$75,000. If the individual had stayed at his previous job, he would have made \$30,000. In this example, the accounting profit is \$25,000, or \$75,000 - \$50,000. However, because the individual had the potential to earn income at another location while retaining the startup costs of the business, an economic loss of \$5,000, or \$25,000 - \$30,000, is incurred. Although an accounting profit occurred, the individual would have made a larger profit if he had stayed in his previous position.

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