Finance Formulas / May 26, 2018 / Avalynn Orr
Breakeven quantity is the number of incremental units that the firm needs to sell to cover the cost of a marketing program or other type of investment, says Avery. If the company doesn’t sell the equivalent of the BEQ as a result of the investment, then it’s losing money and it won’t recoup its costs. If the company sells more than the BEQ then it not only has made its money back but is making additional profit as well.
Economic profit is not recorded on a company’s financial statements nor is it required to be disclosed to regulators, investors or financial institutions. Meanwhile, accounting profit is a widely used performance measurement to indicate the overall financial success of an organization. Accounting profit measures the actual cash outlays and inflows, while economic profits incorporate a "what if" analysis. For this reason, an entity may report an accounting profit but realize an economic loss because resources could have been utilized better.
A dividend is allocated as a fixed amount per share, with shareholders receiving a dividend in proportion to their shareholding. For the joint-stock company, paying dividends is not an expense; rather, it is the division of after-tax profits among shareholders. Retained earnings (profits that have not been distributed as dividends) are shown in the shareholders' equity section on the company's balance sheet - the same as its issued share capital. Public companies usually pay dividends on a fixed schedule, but may declare a dividend at any time, sometimes called a special dividend to distinguish it from the fixed schedule dividends. Cooperatives, on the other hand, allocate dividends according to members' activity, so their dividends are often considered to be a pre-tax expense.
Their simplicity makes them a popular option; no need to attempt to time the market or worry about distribution timing. Also, immediate payment annuities, as opposed to front-loaded annuities, can help lower taxes by deferring payments to a time when the annuitant is in a lower tax bracket.
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