# Accounting Ratios Formulas

Finance Formulas / February 9, 2018 / Kenzie Kennedy

In the short run, a firm can make an economic profit. However, if there is economic profit, other firms will want to enter the market. If the market has no barriers to entry, new firms will enter, increase the supply of the commodity, and decrease the price. This decrease in price leads to a decrease in the firmâ€™s revenue, so in the long-run, economic profit is zero. An economic profit of zero is also known as a normal profit. Despite earning an economic profit of zero, the firm may still be earning a positive accounting profit.

### Contribution Margin Per Unit Formula

#### Cost Per Thousand Formula

##### Capital Gain Formula

###### Portfolio Return Formula

While the basic earnings-per-share formula only takes a company's outstanding common shares into account, the diluted earnings-per-share calculation takes all convertible securities into consideration. A company might have convertible preferred shares or stock options that could theoretically become common stock. If this were to happen, the result would be a reduction in earnings per share, and as such, a company's diluted earnings per share will always be lower than its basic earnings per share.

Companies fund their capital purchases with equity and borrowed capital. The equity capitalstockholders' equity can also be viewed as a company's net assets (total assets minus total liabilities). Investors contribute their share of (paid-in) capital as stockholders, which is the basic source of total stockholders' equity. The amount of paid-in capital from an investor is a factor in determining hisher ownership percentage.

Spreading the cost over multiple accounting periods helps provide a clearer picture of how your expenditures compare with your earnings. It also ensures that your accounting complies with federal rules for calculating depreciation.

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