# Discounted Cash Flow Formula

Finance Formulas / July 14, 2018 / Heaven Estes

Economic profit is determined by economic principles, not GAAP. Just like accounting profit, costs are deducted from revenues. Economic profit uses implicit costs, not just explicit costs. Implicit costs are considered opportunity costs and are normally the company's own resources. Examples of implicit costs include company-owned buildings, equipment and self-employment resources. Economic profit computations are not normally limited to time periods like accounting profit computations are. Economic profit is used more to judge total value of the company somewhat like the performance metric economic value added (EVA) would and is helpful in calculating total production costs.

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In corporate finance, the Debt-Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) is a measure of the cash flow available to pay current debt obligations. The ratio states net operating income as a multiple of debt obligations due within one year, including interest, principal, sinking-fund and lease payments.

It is important to keep the rate per period and number of periods consistent with one another in the formula. If the loan payments are made monthly, then the rate per period needs to be adjusted to the monthly rate and the number of periods would be the number of months on the loan. If payments are quarterly, the terms of the loan payment formula would be adjusted accordingly.

If a corporation has issued only one type, or class, of stock it will be common stock. ("Preferred stock" is discussed later.) While "common" sounds rather ordinary, it is the common stockholders who elect the board of directors, vote on whether to have a merger with another company, and get huge returns on their investment if the corporation becomes successful.

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