Finance Formulas / July 6, 2018 / Cecelia Weiss
Total costs are made up of fixed costs, those costs that are required for production but do not change based on output, and variable costs, those costs that increase or decrease as output increases or decreases. For example, if an organization manufactures desktop computer screens, the glass screens, plastic casings, electrical boards and wires, and screws are all variable costs. The cost of the facility they are made in and the equipment used to assemble the monitors are fixed costs. It doesn't matter if one monitor is made or 100, the cost of the facility and equipment will remain fixed.
To examine the relationship between interest rates and bond prices, imagine an investor buys a bond from ABC Corporation with a 4% coupon rate and a $1,000 face value. Another investor waits a few weeks before buying a bond, and during that time, the issuer raises interest rates to 6%. At this point, the second investor can buy a $1,000 bond from ABC Corporation and receive $60 in interest per year.
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