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Finance Formulas / July 13, 2018 / Cecelia Weiss

Bond valuation is a technique for determining the theoretical fair value of a particular bond. Bond valuation includes calculating the present value of the bond's future interest payments, also known as its cash flow, and the bond's value upon maturity, also known as its face value or par value. Because a bond's par value and interest payments are fixed, an investor uses bond valuation to determine what rate of return is required for a bond investment to be worthwhile.

Contribution margin is used by management when making pricing decisions. This is especially true in special pricing or special order situations where fixed costs are sunk costs and should not be factored into the decision whether to accept or reject. Negative or low contribution margins indicate a product line or business segment may not be profitable.

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