Finance Formulas / July 13, 2018 / Iliana Williamson
Bond valuation, in effect, is calculating the present value of a bond’s expected future coupon payments. The theoretical fair value of a bond is calculated by discounting the present value of its coupon payments by an appropriate discount rate. The discount rate used is the yield to maturity, which is the rate of return that an investor will get if she reinvested every coupon payment from the bond at a fixed interest rate until the bond matures. It takes into account the price of a bond, par value, coupon rate, and time to maturity.
Typical bonds consist of semi-annual payments costing $25 per coupon. Coupons are usually described according to the coupon rate. The yield the coupon bond pays on the date of its issuance is called the coupon rate. The value of the coupon rate may change. Bonds with higher coupon rates are more attractive for investors since they provide higher yields. The coupon rate is calculated by taking the sum of all the coupons paid per year and dividing it with the bond's face value.
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