Finance Formulas / July 16, 2018 / Luz Tyson
Total debt to total assets is a measure of the company's assets that are financed by debt, rather than equity. This leverage ratio shows how a company has grown and acquired its assets over time. Investors use the ratio to not only evaluate whether the company has enough funds to meet its current debt obligations, but to also assess whether the company can pay a return on their investment. Creditors use the ratio to see how much debt the company already has and if the company has the ability to repay its debt, which will determine whether additional loans will be extended to the firm.
There are many variations when it comes to what you can use for your cash flows and discount rate in a DCF analysis. For example, free cash flows can be calculated as operating profit + depreciation + amortization of goodwill - capital expenditures - cash taxes - change in working capital. Although the calculations are complex, the purpose of DCF analysis is simply to estimate the money you'd receive from an investment and to adjust for the time value of money.
Contribution margin is the sales price minus total variable costs, where variable costs might include materials, labor or overhead. For example, Company XYZ sells a product for $100 each. The company incurs a unit variable direct material expense of $12, unit variable labor expense of $25, $10 of variable overhead per unit and $8 of fixed overhead per unit.
Total debt service refers to current debt obligations, meaning any interest, principal, sinking-fund and lease payments that are due in the coming year. On a balance sheet, this will include short-term debt and the current portion of long-term debt.
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