Finance Formulas / July 16, 2018 / Kenley Hopper
When investors buy bonds, they essentially lend bond issuers money. In return, bond issuers agree to pay investors interest on bonds throughout their lifetime and to repay the face value of bonds upon maturity. The money that investors earn is called yield. Investors do not have to hold bonds to maturity. Instead, they may sell them for a higher or lower price to other investors, and if an investor makes money on the sale of a bond, that is also part of its yield.
Current assets are generally listed first on a company's balance sheet and will be presented in the order of liquidity. That means they will appear in the following order: cash (which includes currency, checking accounts, petty cash), temporary investments, accounts receivable, inventory, supplies, and prepaid expenses.
Contribution margin is a cost accounting concept that lets a company determine the profitability of its individual products. The phrase contribution margin can also refer to a per unit measure of a product's gross operating margin. It's calculated as the product's sale price minus its total variable costs per unit. This metric helps a company evaluate different areas of the business to determine the profitability of each service or product.
Debt ratio is a solvency ratio that measures a firm’s total liabilities as a percentage of its total assets. In a sense, the debt ratio shows a company’s ability to pay off its liabilities with its assets. In other words, this shows how many assets the company must sell in order to pay off all of its liabilities.
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