Finance Formulas / July 21, 2018 / Kenley Hopper
Economic profit is the difference between the revenue a firm earns from sales and the firm’s total opportunity costs. It’s important to distinguish between accounting profit and economic profit. Accounting profit is total revenue minus the explicit costs of producing goods or services. Explicit costs are things like raw materials and employee wages. This is what most people are referring to when they talk about profit.
Cash flow is calculated by making certain adjustments to net income by adding or subtracting differences in revenue, expenses and credit transactions (appearing on the balance sheet and income statement) resulting from transactions that occur from one period to the next. These adjustments are made because non-cash items are calculated into net income (income statement) and total assets and liabilities (balance sheet).
Current assets are important to businesses because they can be used to fund day-to-day operations and pay ongoing expenses. Depending on the nature of the business, current assets can range from barrels of crude oil, to baked goods, to foreign currency. On a balance sheet, current assets will normally be displayed in order of liquidity, that is, the ease with which they can be turned into cash.
A depreciation rate is the percentage of a long-term investment that you use as an annual tax deductible expense during the period over which you claim it as a tax deduction. Because you use fixed assets, or major business investments, over time, it doesn't make sense to simply deduct the total amount you pay during the year you pay it.
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