Finance Formulas / July 17, 2018 / Tatiana Douglas
The accounting equation is sometimes referred to as the "basic accounting equation" or balance sheet equation could also be written as Shareholders' Equity = Assets – Liabilities, where the statement is rearranged to reflect the residual claim of equity owners. Alternatively, one can rearrange the accounting statement and the results of the equation will still hold if done properly.
A dividend is allocated as a fixed amount per share, with shareholders receiving a dividend in proportion to their shareholding. For the joint-stock company, paying dividends is not an expense; rather, it is the division of after-tax profits among shareholders. Retained earnings (profits that have not been distributed as dividends) are shown in the shareholders' equity section on the company's balance sheet - the same as its issued share capital. Public companies usually pay dividends on a fixed schedule, but may declare a dividend at any time, sometimes called a special dividend to distinguish it from the fixed schedule dividends. Cooperatives, on the other hand, allocate dividends according to members' activity, so their dividends are often considered to be a pre-tax expense.
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