Finance Formulas / February 9, 2018 / Rory Wise
Discounted cash flow models are powerful, but they do have shortcomings. DCF is merely a mechanical valuation tool, which makes it subject to the axiom "garbage in, garbage out." Small changes in inputs can result in large changes in the value of a company. Instead of trying to project the cash flows to infinity, terminal value techniques are often used. A simple annuity is used to estimate the terminal value past 10 years, for example. This is done because it is harder to come to a realistic estimate of the cash flows as time goes on.
The loan payment formula is used to calculate the payments on a loan. The formula used to calculate loan payments is exactly the same as the formula used to calculate payments on an ordinary annuity. A loan, by definition, is an annuity, in that it consists of a series of future periodic payments.
Accounts receivable is the balance of money due to a firm for goods or services delivered or used but not yet paid for by customers. Said another way, account receivable are amounts of money owed by customers to another entity for goods or services delivered or used on credit but not yet paid for by clients.
Total debt to total assets is a measure of the company's assets that are financed by debt, rather than equity. This leverage ratio shows how a company has grown and acquired its assets over time. Investors use the ratio to not only evaluate whether the company has enough funds to meet its current debt obligations, but to also assess whether the company can pay a return on their investment. Creditors use the ratio to see how much debt the company already has and if the company has the ability to repay its debt, which will determine whether additional loans will be extended to the firm.
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