# Annuity Immediate Formula

Finance Formulas / April 27, 2018 / Avalynn Orr

A lower debt ratio usually implies a more stable business with the potential of longevity because a company with lower ratio also has lower overall debt. Each industry has its own benchmarks for debt, but .5 is reasonable ratio.

### Dividend Payout Ratio Formula

#### Inventory Cost Formula

##### Coupon Rate Formula

###### Contribution Margin Per Unit Formula

When investors buy bonds, they essentially lend bond issuers money. In return, bond issuers agree to pay investors interest on bonds throughout their lifetime and to repay the face value of bonds upon maturity. The money that investors earn is called yield. Investors do not have to hold bonds to maturity. Instead, they may sell them for a higher or lower price to other investors, and if an investor makes money on the sale of a bond, that is also part of its yield.

Contribution margin is directly related to the contribution margin ratio. The contribution margin ratio can be calculated on a per-unit basis or an aggregate basis. The per-unit basis divides the contribution margin per unit by the unit sale price, while the total contribution margin ratio divides the total contribution margin by the total revenue. The figure will result in a percentage that indicates what percentage of each dollar of revenue is generated to cover fixed costs.

Discounted cash flow models are powerful, but they do have shortcomings. DCF is merely a mechanical valuation tool, which makes it subject to the axiom "garbage in, garbage out." Small changes in inputs can result in large changes in the value of a company. Instead of trying to project the cash flows to infinity, terminal value techniques are often used. A simple annuity is used to estimate the terminal value past 10 years, for example. This is done because it is harder to come to a realistic estimate of the cash flows as time goes on.

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