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Finance Formulas / July 18, 2018 / Cecelia Weiss

Bond valuation, in effect, is calculating the present value of a bond’s expected future coupon payments. The theoretical fair value of a bond is calculated by discounting the present value of its coupon payments by an appropriate discount rate. The discount rate used is the yield to maturity, which is the rate of return that an investor will get if she reinvested every coupon payment from the bond at a fixed interest rate until the bond matures. It takes into account the price of a bond, par value, coupon rate, and time to maturity.

The personal debtequity ratio is often used in financing, as when an individual or small business is applying for a loan. This form of DE essentially measures the dollar amount of debt an individual has for each dollar of equity they have. DE is very important to a lender when considering a candidate for a loan, as it can greatly contribute to the lender’s confidence (or lack thereof) in the candidate’s financial stability.

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