# Profit And Loss Formula

Finance Formulas / July 24, 2018 / Briana Leonard

Annual Percentage rate (APR) explains the cost of borrowing with a variety of loans, including credit cards and mortgage loans. Costs are quoted as a percentage. For example, if your loan has an APR of 10 percent, you would pay $10 per $100 that you borrow each year. All other things being equal, the loan with the lowest APR is typically least expensive—but it’s usually more complicated than that.

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The debt-to-equity ratio is a measure of the relationship between the capital contributed by creditors and the capital contributed by shareholders. It also shows the extent to which shareholders' equity can fulfill a company's obligations to creditors in the event of a liquidation.

Generally speaking, the higher the asset turnover ratio, the better the company is performing, since higher ratios imply that the company is generating more revenue per dollar of assets. The asset turnover ratio tends to be higher for companies in certain sectors than in others. Retail and consumer staples, for example, have relatively small asset bases but have high sales volume and, thus, often yield the highest asset turnover ratio.

The cost of equity is the return a company requires to decide if an investment meets capital return requirements. It is often used as a capital budgeting threshold for required rate of return. A firm's cost of equity represents the compensation the market demands in exchange for owning the asset and bearing the risk of ownership. The traditional formulas for cost of equity (COE) are the dividend capitalization model and the capital asset pricing model.

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