# Unit Product Cost Formula

Finance Formulas / July 25, 2018 / Iliana Williamson

Economic profits may be positive, zero, or negative. If economic profit is positive, other firms have an incentive to enter the market. If profit is zero, other firms have no incentive to enter or exit. When economic profit is zero, a firm is earning the same as it would if its resources were employed in the next best alternative. If the economic profit is negative, firms have the incentive to leave the market because their resources would be more profitable elsewhere. The amount of economic profit a firm earns is largely dependent on the degree of market competition and the time span under consideration.

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Calculating the breakeven point is a key financial analysis tool used by business owners. Once you know the fixed and variable costs for the product your business produces or a good approximation of them, you can use that information to calculate your company's breakeven point. Small business owners can use the calculation to determine how many product units they need to sell at a given price point to break even.

The formula for debt-service coverage ratio requires net operating income and total debt service of the entity. Net operating income is a company's revenue minus its operating expenses, not including taxes and interest payments. It is often considered equivalent of earnings before interest and tax (EBIT). Some calculations include non-operating income in EBIT, however, which is never the case for net operating income. As a lender or investor comparing different companies' credit-worthiness – or a manager comparing different years' or quarters' – it is important to apply consistent criteria when calculating DSCR. As a borrower, it is important to realize that lenders may calculate DSCR in slightly different ways.

An economic profit or loss is the difference between the revenue received from the sale of an output and the opportunity cost of the inputs used. In calculating economic profit, opportunity costs are deducted from revenues earned. Opportunity costs are the alternative returns foregone by using the chosen inputs, and as a result, a person can have a significant accounting profit with little to no economic profit.

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